The pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis: a modern outlook
Sergeeva M.A., Sorokina E.V., Arzumanian V.G.
Mechnikov Research Institute for Vaccines and Sera, Moscow, Russia
Central Research Dermatology Clinic, Moscow, Russia
Modern data reflect the complexity of cutaneous pathology in seborrheic dermatitis, a mosaic of various mechanisms and factors including gene expression, immune disregulation, changes in environment and host microbiome, as well as comorbidities. We discuss current classification of seborrheic dermatitis and variety of its pathomorphologic changes. The data on epidemiology and etiopathogenesis of this skin disease are presented relative to the role of Malassezia spp. Various pathways of innate and adaptive immunity, induced by metabolites and pathogen-associated molecular patterns mediate the inflammation process and alteration of epidermal barrier observed in seborrheic dermatitis. There are certain gene mutations associated with seborrheic dermatitis. We explore the links between seborrheic dermatitis and pathology of other organs and systems, e.g. Parkinson’s disease and other neurological disorders, as well as immune deficiency. Recent studies enhance our understanding of seborrheic dermatitis as a complex multifactorial disease.