Cell-mediated immunity in patients with post-CoVID syndrome
Asfandiyarova N.S., Demikhov V.G., Yakovleva E.Yu., Akimova E.P.
Ryazan State Medical University
Aim: to study the investigate of the cell-mediate immunity in post-COVID syndrome.
Material and Methods: 278 patients with mild, moderate or severe Covid-19 in acute period with post-COVID syndrome were examined. All patients were questioned, and, if necessary, were examined by doctors of various specialties. The patients were divided into 2 groups depending on the severity of the course of the disease in the acute period and the duration of manifestations of post-COVID symptoms (up to 12 weeks or more). The state of cell-mediated immunity was assessed using the reaction of blast transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (morphological method for evaluating the reaction) in response to PHA. The activity of cells synthesizing cyclooxygenase was also determined. The control group included 200 practically healthy people of the same sex and age, who were not vaccinated and did not have a coronavirus infection.
Results: a decrease in the proliferative activity of lymphocytes in response to PHA was found in patients who underwent Covid-19, both in mild (51,4±1.1%, p<0.01) and severe (49,3± 1,2% p<0,001), more pronounced in the latter in the first three months after the acute period of the disease (p<0,001). In all groups, there is an increase in the activity of cells synthesizing cyclooxygenase, which causes inflammation, which is more pronounced in patients who have had a severe form of Covid-19.
Conclusion: The proliferative activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes in people who have had a coronavirus infection is reduced, both in the period up to 12 weeks and beyond; this is especially pronounced in patients who have had severe forms of Covid-19. In all groups, an increase in the activity of cells synthesizing cyclooxygenase, which plays a role in the development of inflammation, and possibly determines the progression of the course, was noted.