Effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy on cytokine concentration and sensitization to house dust mite in patients with bronchial asthma
Sidorenko E.V., Vykhrystsenko L.R.
Vitebsk State Medical University, Vitebsk, Belarus
The purpose of the study is assessment of the effect of sublingual-oral and intradermal allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) on sensitization to house dust mite, concentration of class E immunoglobulins (IgE), and levels of interleukins (IL-5, IL-8, TGF-β) in patients with bronchial asthma (BA).
Materials and methods. The study involved 80 patients aged 18-60 years with allergic and mixed BA who received standard pharmacotherapy (PT) and low-dose sublingual-oral ASIT (40 patients), PT and high-dose intradermal ASIT (30 patients), only PT (10 patients). The dynamics of skin sensitization and the level of IgE antibodies to the D.pteronyssinus mite, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-5 (IL-5) in blood serum were assessed after 12 months after the start of ASIT.
The results of the study. Under the influence of intradermal and sublingual-oral ASIT, but not PT, the level of IL-8 decreased (p=0.007 and p=0.005, respectively) and skin sensitization to the house dust mite allergen D.pteronyssinus (p<0.001 in both ASIT groups), decreased the level of IgE antibodies to house dust mite (p=0.012 and p=0.027, respectively), the level of TGF-β increased with its initially low level (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively).
Conclusion. Both ASIT methods induced immunological tolerance in patients, suppressing skin sensitization and reducing the production of specific IgE, and also exerted a modulating effect on the immune response by increasing the level of TGF-β.