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International journal of Immunopathology, allergology, infectology.

Hypothesis: pathophysiological activation of endogenous retroviruses as exemplified
by human immunodeficiency virus

Sidelnikov G.D.

Independent researcher, Ulyanovsk, Russia

Endogenous retroelements (ER) are an integral structural and functional component of human genome, adapted by evolution to the molecular connection of a macroorganism with extracellular environment. ERs are permanently active during different development stages and the state of the host organism. Particularly, ERs acting as DNA provirus or exogenous virion forms participate in the functions of innate and adaptive immunity thereby modulate immune responses and maintain homeostasis. The extreme loads by external stimuli (superantigens) can lead the immune system to a hyperactive state, at the same time causing hyperactivity and overexpression of ERs with the subsequent development of immunological consequences due to the properties of ER products.


Endogenous retroelements, retroviruses, exosomes, superantigens, pathophysiological activation, human immunodeficiency virus.

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Sidelnikov G.D. Immunopathology, allergology, infectology 2019; 4:44-60. DOI: 10.14427/jipai.2019.4.44